Tamuɣli n Montesquieu ɣef udabu

Deg tmuɣli n Montesqiueu, isaḍufen neɣ leqwanen d nutni i yesselḥawen tilufa gar yemdanen, zgan-d sufella n kra yellan. I wakken ad nefhem isaḍufen i d-sersen yemdanen, ilaq ad nerzu ɣer teɣdemt axaṭer dinna i yettbedday lḥedd.

Isaḍufen n yemdanen mgaraden ɣef wid n ugama, ur d-ttnulfan kan akka. Leqwanen i d-sbedden yemdanen, ɣas ur ttemcabin, resen ɣef yiwen n llsas. Wa icudd ɣer gma-s. Asaḍuf yettḍebbir, d netta i d assaɣ gar wid yesmendiwen (wid d-yesnulfayen lqanun) d yineḥkamen. Asaḍuf d aseɣwen i d-yefrurin seg temsal d wamek d-ḍrant, am win yeqqnen Rebbi d yemdanen neɣ win n yemdanen deg aygar-nsen.

Montesqiueu yettwali isaḍufen s wudem n tussna; ur ten-yettmuqul ara mfaraqen, yeqqar iseɣwan i ten-icudden wa ɣer wa. Yettaddam-d lmul ussnan, ad t-yessers syinnakin ɣef yemdanen. Iseɣwan yakk yellan ger leqwanen d nutni i d iman, i d rruḥ n yisaḍufen. Asaḍuf i ten-id-jemmlen yakk d ṣṣwab n wemdan, imi d netta i yettḍebbiren ɣef yemdanen yakk n lqaɛa.

S ttexmam-a, Motesqiueu yeɛreḍ ad d-yesbeggen ṣwab n tmettiyin n medden d yisaḍufen. Timsal n tsertit d taluft n umusnaw; tussna n tsertit ur yezmir yiwen ad tt-iɣer alma yekkes-as lhiba i tidet n ddin.

Asenqed n yinhilen (iduba)

Montesqiueu ur yebni ara ttexmam-is s tsertiyin tiqdimin, dacu kan yugem-d s waṭas seg tfelsafit tasertant n zik imi yeɣra 03 n leṣnaf imeqranen n udabu :

  • Adabu agdudan :

Deg udabu-a, d agdud neɣ cwiṭ deg-s i iḥekkmen. Deg-s, ad naf sin n leṣnaf: arisṭukraṭ ( adabu n kra) d tugdut (adabu n yakk);

Deg tegduda tagdudant, leḥkem d ayla n wegdud, d acu kan ikennu deg taggara i leqwanen i d-sersen iɛeggalen d-yesbedd. Ɣer Montesquieu yella wemgirred gar tugdut tusridt d tin n yiɛeggalen. Netta yettwali agdud yessefk-as ad iḍebber ɣef kra i yellan gar ifassen-is, ayen i d-yegran d tamsalt n yineɣlafen-is. Tigejdit iɣef yebna udabu-a d ṣwab, lmeɛna-s d sivizm i yettarran amdan yessizwir nnfeɛ n medden yakk d tmurt ɣef nnfeɛ-is netta. Tayri n sɛaya d ayen ur nettumekken deg udabu yecban wa imi d tezdeg i t-yesseddawen.   Dacu kan, adabu-a ur yezmir ad d-yili ala deg tmura timecṭuḥin.

Deg tegduda tarisṭukraṭ, anager drus i yeṭṭfen leḥkem. Ṣwab, ɣas d tigejdit daɣen deg ṣenf udabu-a, ur yeǧhid ara imi deg drus n tlufa kan i ikennu i lebɣi n wegdud.

  • Adabu ageldan :

Yiwen i yettrayin, i ilan leḥkem, d netta kan i yesselḥawen tilufa s lemqadra n leqwanen ibedden. Agellid ur yezmir ara ad yexdem ayen akk i yebɣa, imi tazmert-is tesɛa tilisa. Tilist-is teqqen ɣer tezmert yergazen yesɛan ccan deg tgelda-s, am: Lqaḍi, At ddin d yimeqqranen nniḍen. Tigejdit n udabu-a d iseɣ d wayen i iḥemmlen lɣaci n tgelda. Ageldun ur yezmir ad yessuter deg yemdanen ad xedmen ayen iwumi ur zmiren i wakken ur itekkes ara fell-asen sser.

  • Adabu n udebbuz :

Yiwen i yettrayin, meɛna mebla tilisa. Yettḍebbir kan akken yebɣa, akken s-d-ddnen uqerruy-is d wul-is. Deg udabu-a, win iḥekmen ur yesɛi d acu ara t-id-iḥebsen neɣ ad s-iḥettmen xerṣum d ayen i iṛeggem neɣ yewɛed. Yezmer ad yefk yak tazmert-is i yineɣlafen-is. Tigejdit n ṣṣenf udabu-a d tegdi, d lxuf.

Yal ṣṣenf n udabu yebna ɣef wedɣaɣ n lmul-tigejdit : d ayen i yessezdayen isaḍufen n kra n udabu. Tijɛelt n udabu tbeddu deg tazwara s tmesɣiwt n tgejdit iɣef yuli udabu-a (amedya : deg tegduda tagdudant, imdanen yeffeɣ-asen ṣwab)

Montesquieu yezzem nezzeh adabu n udebbuz, yewṣef-it am wexxam mebla tiɛerstin. Adabu-a ur yesɛi ara taɣessa tasertant-taɣademt (la lqanun, la aseɣwen ger uneḥkam d yisaḍufen, imi imdanen knan kan ar nnefḥa n uqerruy i ten-iḥekmen). I t-yeččuren d tasusmi kan d tigugemt ideg yeṭṭenṭun lebɣi n yimḍebber, ulac yakk deg-s ayen iwumi qqaren taɣessa timettit. Deg udabu n udebbuz, wid yellan yakk swadda kifkif-iten deg wazal. ɣer Montesqiueu, d aseɛdel ger yemdanen i yesseččayen adabu-a. Acku mi ara ɛedlen yakk yemdanen, tettruḥu-asen tazmert i wakken ad qablen win yuɣalen d Rebbi fell-asen.

Dɣa seddaw n Udabu Aqdim, igelliden ttaɛraḍen ad d-sersen leqwanen wer ma fkan azal i tseddarin n yemdanen (tisegluyin), aya i wakken ad sefḍen icelqem yellan gar medden, ɣilen d ayen fessusen. Montesqiueu iwala-d aseɛdel-a ger medden yettawi ɣer leḥkem udebbuz.

Tifrat ɣer-s d aleggen n lǧehd i yesɛan yemdanen: yessefk lmizan ara yesserkden timetti d wefraq n tzemmar n ddula.

Afraq n tzemmar 

Ɣer Montesqiueu, tilelli mačči d timunnent, iswi mačči d tazmert ad yexdem yiwen akken i s-yehwa. Tilelli i nettnadi d tin ara yefken tazmert i wemdan ad yexdem ayen akk i s-yessuref lqanun. D lqanun ihi i d-yessrusun tilisa n tlelli.

Aserrus n yisaḍufen iṛessan ur yettaǧǧa ara adabu i yebnan ɣef tgejdit n tegdi ad d-ilal. Win yettḍebbiren ilaq ad yeknu i yisaḍufen.

Montesqiueu yettwali deg wefraq n tzemmar n ddula yesnernay deg tlelli n yemdanen. S tmuɣli-a, ad naf belli llan sin n leṣnaf n yiduba: adabu ireẓnen (am tugdut d trisṭukraṭit) d win ur nerẓin ara. Anager adabu ireẓnen i izemren ad yeḍmen tilelli n wemdan. Ala s tmendawt iweznen d yisaḍufen i iḍemmnen laman i terwiḥin n yemdanen i s-izemren ad d-ḥellin tilelli-nsen. Ɣer Montsequieu, ilaq tifin n ttawil ara igen tilisa i tezmert n ddula.

Dɣa ɣef wannect-a i d-yettmeslay ɣef wefraq n tzemmar i d-yebder uqbel-is yakan Locke. Aya yekkat i wakken ur tettemttuttul ara tezmert ger ifassen n yiwen n wemdan kan. “Tazmert tḥebbes-d tazmert nniḍen”. Dacu kan, tezmer tmurt ad t-tfeṣṣel aya akken s-yehwa, tezmer ad tesdukkel ger snat n tzemmar deg umedya, neɣ ad tger azeṭṭa ger tzemmar.

Montesquieu yettwali deg Yiman n yisaḍufen 03 tɣawsiwin i yessefken i wefraq n tzemmar. Yeddem-d amedya n Tmendawt taglizit:

  • Aberlaman: tazmert n usnagal, tira d useɣti n yisaḍufen.
  • Aselway n Unabaḍ: ixeddem s yisaḍufen i d-tessers tezmert tasnagalt. Yecqa-d d tlufa n wezref n yemdanen (tadiplumasit)
  • Taɣdemt: tettḥasab, tḥekkem, tferru iɣeblan d yimenɣiwen ger yemdanen. Telha-d d tlufa yeɛnan azref aɣarim.

Wid d-yusan deg leqrun wis-19 d 20 (Durgit, Carré de Malberg, ..) fehmen s leɣlaḍ afraq n tzemmar i d-yemla Montesquieu. Ɣilen afraq-a n tzemmar yessefk ad yili d ugzim, netta dɣa aya d awezɣi ad d-yili deg tilawt, axaṭer aya ad d-yeglu s uẓerreb, yal tazmert deg tama-s. Ulamek yal tama n ddula ad tesɛu tazmert-is i yiman-is, neɣ ad tili d tilellit s wudem igezmen (yiwet ur tettɛawan tayeḍnin). Aẓerreb-a yeslalay-d yiwen udabu d aɛeẓẓug , d tisselwit d tejmaɛt-is kan i yettrayin (ala adebbuz i izemren ad d-yessufɣen tamurt seg tnexxart-a) neɣ adabu ara yesselḥaw wegraw kan (tisselwit d lexyal ubeɛli kan).

Ur yessefk ara ihi usemnenni n snat n tzemmar ger ifassen n yiwen n wemdan. Asemnenni yezmer ad d-yawi dder, aladɣa mi ara yiwen ad yejmeɛ 03 n lxedmat ɣef tikelt. Meɛna, yelha mi ara yiwen ad d-yeṭṭef cwiṭ deg-sent: amedya, azref n Veto. Aya yessuruf i yal tazmert ad teḥbes tayeḍnin, ad teslek seg lbaṭel-is.

Afran n udabu 

 Deg tmuɣli n Montesquieu, ulamek yakk ad d-tbedd tugdut tusridt deg tmettiyin-nneɣ tatrarin seddaw n Unabaḍ ageldan, acku wessiɛit nezzeh. Tagduda daɣen ulamek ad d-tili deg ṣṣenf n tmettiyin-a. Yerna, tigejdit iɣef tebna tugdut d ṣṣwab; ṣṣwab deg tmetti tartart ulac-it. Yessefk ihi ad yesseḥseb yiwen i tudert tajdiṭ d-wwin yemdanen n tura ( idrimen rran-ten yal yiwen yettxemmim i yiman-is, awi-d kan ad d-ddren wer ma cqan-d ma telha tudert-nsen neɣ xaṭi). Lmeɛna n zik truḥ, yeǧǧa-tt zman.

S tiṭ n wemdan atrar, Montesquieu yettwali tilelli ur d-tettas ara s uttekki deg udabu d tsertit. Amdan atrar yettwali tilelli mi ara yerwel seg tsertit d mi ara yeɛzel iman-is deg lehmum n wexxam-is.

Deg udabu n udebbuz, imdanen kennun imir-nni. Deg tgelda, kennun s ṭṭul. Tegdi tettili-d deg udabu ideg ur d-tettbin ansi ara d-tas tiyita. Yessefk ihi usbeddi n leqwanen iṣeḥḥan ara isefḍen tegdi, ad d-yawin talwit.

Udem n tsertit yettban-d amek ttqadaren medden isaḍufen ibedden. Ɣer Montesqiueu, ur nkennu ara i lqanun, meɛna nxeddem ayen yessuruf lqanun. Afraq ger tzemmar yezmer ad d-yawi tadukli, i waken wa ur yettali ɣef wa. Deg taggara, lqanun yella-d i waken ad yesḥirbeb amdan, ad t-yesserked.

Ma ɣef yedrimen, Montesquieu yettwali belli d ttawil yelhan i userked d useggem n lemxalṭat ger yemdanen, yettarra-ten wa yettnadi ɣef wayeḍ. S tmuɣli-a, Montesqiueu yesnulfa-d ajdid deg tussna tasertit, imi yessuẓa ar sdat “lmeɛna”.

Smaɛil Abid

Amagrad-a yeffeɣ tikkelt tamezwarut deg usmel:  Tazawart.com

 

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